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Galilei the Italian that revolutionized science
Throughout history, Italy has seen the birth of outstanding figures who have distinguished themselves for their abilities and intellectual talents. One of the most popular and appreciated is Galileo Galilei. The 15th of February celebrates the 455th anniversary of his birth. Every year this day is celebrated in the main Italian cities with events and initiatives dedicated to Galileo. Italian Traditions will guide you on the discovery of this historical Italian figure. Here we will tell you about his life and the dispute with the Catholic Church. Finally, we will talk about his most important works.
Who was Galileo?
Galileo is considered as the father of modern science. In the course of his life he was a physicist, an astronomer, a philosopher, a mathematician and an Italian academic. He gave important contributions to the field of dynamics and astronomy as well as the introduction of the scientific method. One of his most important works was the improvement of the telescope that allowed him to make astronomical discoveries. The role Galileo had in the astronomy revolution was also decisive.
Galileo Galilei was born on February 15th, 1564 in Pisa, the eldest son of Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia Ammannati. He began his studies in Florence first with his father and then with a private teacher of dialectics. Finally, he entered the school of Santa Maria di Vallombrosa. In 1980 he enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Pisa. During this period, he began his mathematical studies through the knowledge of Ostilio Ricci as a follower of the school of Niccolò Tartaglia. He remained in Pisa until 1585 and during this period he makes his first discovery which consists in the isochronism of the pendulum oscillations.
He moved to Florence after leaving the faculty of Medicine and there he began to deal with mechanics and hydraulics. In 1589 he returned to Pisa where he obtained a three-year contract for a mathematics proffessorship at the University of Pisa. In 1592 he moved to the University of Padua. He stayed there for 18 years. In 1610 he returned to the University of Florence. His discoveries and his studies caused him the hostility of the Catholic Church. This led to his conviction which occurred on 22th June 1633. He died in Arcetri on January 8, 1642.
His main discoveries and most important works
Galileo Galilei made incredible discoveries that contributed decisively to scientific progress. One of the first was the invention of the telescope which is developed in the Netherlands. The creation of this instrument was for Galileo fundamental also for the subsequent explorations in the astronomical field. The introduction of the scientific method was without any doubt of fundamental importance. Another decisive contribution was that in support of heliocentric theory. This led to the overcoming of the Ptolemaic system in favour of the Copernican theory. Very important was also the theory of the pendulum.
In the course of his life Galileo Galilei wrote many works that have been fundamental for the birth of modern science. Among the most important published until 1623 we want to remember:
- The operations of the geometric and military compass
- Sidereus Nuncius
- Discourse around floating bodies
- Historia and demonstrations around sunspots
- Discourse over the flow and reflux of the sea
- The discourse of Comets
- The Saggiatore.
In the final part of his life the main works written by Galilei were:
- Dialogue on the two maximum systems of the world
- Speech and Mathematical Demonstration, in return to two new sciences
- Sphere treaty.
In the past there have been many people who have determined the beginning of a change thanks to their discoveries and their studies. For this they are remembered every year with events and celebratory meetings. If you want to discover other Italian characters that were important to the history we recommend reading this article. Now that you know all about Galileo Galilei you just have to read his works if you have not yet done so.